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Here, gathered in our beloved South Dakota, are a few members of our Williamson / Mattson Clan. Charles and Luella are to be blamed (be kind, they didn't know what they were doing). We're generally a happy bunch and somewhat intelligent (notwithstanding our tenous grasp on reality). I'm also proud to say that most of us still have our teeth.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

It's Time to Study the Williamson DNA. I'm Going For It.


Paternal Lineage and the Y-Chromosome
A male providing his Y-chromosome sample also represents the DNA of his father, paternal grandfather, and so on up the paternal line. Y-chromosome results are generally identical throughout the paternal line. But because mutations do occur, it is possible for a son's results to be slightly different from his father's or his brother's.
Women, in spite of not carrying a Y-chromosome, can still trace their paternal lineage. Using a DNA sample provided by a brother, father, or another paternal relative (for example, a male cousin) a woman can treat these Y results as if they were her own.
Y-chromosome test
The Y-DNA test looks at specific regions of the Y-chromosome. These regions are known to contain a series of repeating sequences of DNA molecules (for more information see short tandem repeat). All men have these repeating segments; what differs between men is the number of times the specific sequence repeats. Counting these repeats is what constitutes the results of the Y-DNA test. Ancestry.com DNA offers two Y-chromosome tests: Y-DNA 33 or Y-DNA 46 markers (or locations on the Y-chromosome). Testing more markers allows for a more accurate estimate of the relationship between two individuals.
Common Ancestor
Similar to traditional genealogy, finding a common ancestor across pedigrees is the payoff that leads to expanding family trees. DNA testing provides an objective and accurate way to determine a) to what degree you are related and b) approximately how far in the past you may have shared a common ancestor.
The more Y-chromosome markers tested, the greater the precision of the test. For example, an 18 marker Y-chromosome test that matches another participant's test on all 18 markers, allows a common ancestor to be predicted within a range of 1 to 27 generations. Two participants matching on all 46 markers, on the other hand, can narrow their common ancestor to exist within 1 to 10 generations! For most, a Y-DNA test comparison with up to 2 or 3 mismatches will indicate that there is a genealogically relevant relation in past generations.
Paternal Ancient Ancestry
The Y-chromosome test also provides a look into your ancient paternal ancestry through a prediction of your ancient haplogroup, or deep ancestral grouping haplogroups were formed when ancient peoples migrated and branched out from Africa tens of thousands of years ago. As they spread throughout the world and adapted to their new environments, their DNA diversified, creating new groups and subgroups.

About Paternal Lineage Test Results

Your Paternal Lineage test result consists of two components: Y-DNA results and a paternal ancient ancestry prediction.
Y-DNA Results
Your Y-chromosome results will consist of a table of markers tested (numbering from 1 to 33 or from 1 to 46) and a corresponding value for each. Each marker is a specific location on the Y-chromosome and is referred to by its DNA Y-chromosome Segment number (DYS number).
The portions of the Y-chromosome tested are known to produce repeating patterns of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA.) These Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are counted at each marker and reported as your DNA result. The profile of repeats is inherited from your father and is what differentiates your specific paternal lineage from another's.
The extent to which your Y-DNA results match other participants will determine how closely related you might be by providing an estimate of how far in the past you shared a common ancestor.
Each of the names of the Y-chromosome locations available for testing are presented in the table. A dash, "-", shown in specific boxes in the table means that results were not produced for that particular location because of two possible factors. First, for markers DYS19b, DYS464e and DYS464f, a lack of result may be due to the fact that these allele results are very rare. Second, the dash may signify the presence of a marker value that cannot be obtained using the current testing methodology.
Paternal Ancient Ancestry
Your Paternal Ancient Ancestry (or Haplogroup) is predicted based on your Y-DNA results. You will receive the name of the haplogroup, a detailed description of the group, and a map showing how your ancient ancestors migrated out of Africa over 100,000 years ago and split off to populate the different regions of the world.
Because particular patterns are seen within particular haplogroups, on most occasions we can predict which haplogroup you are in. Along with the prediction, we also provide the history, background and mapped distribution of your haplogroup.
Please be aware that, while our comparative database uses up-to-date information, it may not be possible to make an accurate prediction on all occasions and sometimes no prediction can be made.